My Chronicles of Albert Einstein
History 4400 – Senior Research Project
May 17, 2013
Albert Einstein will go down in history as one of the most complex individuals of all time. His views on the world of politics, industry, society, and science are both inspirational and guiding force for humanity. He believed in a government that served the people, not citizen slaves that served the government. He believed in international cooperation, an a one world government that wished to promote peace instead of promoting and profiting from war. He believed in a society that believed in social and economic equality where men and women lived in a society that was understanding and judged others by their contribution of labor and intellect towards the whole. He believed in a scientific community that looked towards the advancement of science not as a means to gain fame or fortune, but to further human understanding of the physical world. Einstein wished to understand the mind of god. In the end, Einstein will be a name remembered for the rest of human history.
B. Einstein’s Views on Politics/Industry………2-13
C. Einstein’s View On Society…………..13-24
D. Einstein’s View of the Science and the Scientific Community……….24-29
E. Conclusion……… 30-31
All throughout his life, Einstein was a natural born pacifist. Even at a young age, Einstein grew a profound dislike for authority figures. As turmoil among European nations broke out leading up to The Great War, Einstein was an avid spokesperson against violence. Although his mind was meant for scientific research, he was an avid reader and outspoken man in the world of politics. His thoughts and experiences truly transformed his belief in a society where the government was a slave for the people, not merely society as a slave to the cruel self-interest of the few aristocrats who had political authority. In this section, I shall discuss Einstein’s views on politics and industrialism amongst European society and American society. Leading up to and following The Great War, as Einstein called it, was seen as a pessimistic society. “Compared to the American, the European is more critical, more self-conscious, less heartened and helpful, more isolated, more fastidious in his amusements and his readings, generally more or less of a pessimist.”(ibid, 39) Because of the Great Depression, much of European society viewed life in a negative manner. As a result, the governments of this society used this ideology to their advantage. As a result of war and depression, much of European society seemed as though it would latch onto any government or political group that could rally minds to bring them together. Because European government and society believed in the concept of Socialism, it was very easy to persuade the masses to partake in anything they say. This type of government looks towards their own interests before that of the community since a Socialist government controls the media, they could easily control the media according to Einstein.(ibid, 39) Being the free and independent thinker that he was, he could easily see past the lies and false sense of nationalism that the Fascist governments were feeding the people of Europe. “War in the interest of the state is rationalized by the state to the people as a sense of nationalism or patriotism.” (ibid, 59) Being the pacifist that the he saw, Einstein saw this psychological development deployed by the government on its people to be cruel, for the governments of Europe especially that of Germany and Italy, used a false sense of nationalism to rally the people of depressed Europe to go along with their selfish self-interest for control and war.(ibid, 59) The government should be helpful to its citizens considering they were the people that voted them into office.
The State should be our servant not we its slaves. The State transgresses this commandment when it compels us by force to engage in military and war service, the more so since the object and the effect of this slavish service to kill people belonging to other countries or interfere with their freedom of development. We are only to make such sacrifices to the state as will promote the free development of individual human beings. (ibid, 57)
The government should adhere to the thoughts and needs of the people they represent, but the socialist government of war torn and economically depressed nations of Europe knew that had the advantage over the impoverished citizens in which the leaders represented. “Democratic parliament regime which is based on independence has in many places been shaken up where dictators have sprung up and been tolerated. Sheep-like masses can be worked up by the newspapers and political rhetoric.”(ibid, 10) As a result of their authoritarian rule, many of the intellectuals and oppressed members of society, like Einstein, tried speaking out against such rhetoric, but the masses who were now brainwashed by the government saw these individuals as traitors against their own country. The human mind is equivalent to that of a computer, one can program it to believe whatever one wants even if the thoughts of the government were evil, cynical, and in the end went against society’s best interests. Einstein’s held on so dearly to his political beliefs that he eventually lost his job at the University in which he worked at taught Physics because of the fear and oppression his countries leaders inflicted upon the people of Germany. (ibid, 82) He even went as far as revoking his own citizenship to Germany as a result of the Fascist movement that was taking over the country.(ibid,86) It is sad for to one think that war and economic depression can be used by authoritarian governments to rally the people of Europe to believe in such cruel ideology as those of Germany and Italy did. In the end, Einstein stood by his beliefs while the citizens of Europe became wild beasts against those the government wished to blame for problems that they did not cause.
Einstein’s view on America was truly profound and quite optimistic in nature. (ibid, 39 ) He enjoyed the simply freedoms, and overall optimistic view of the American public. (ibid, 39) Democracy, in a sense, was the best and only true working political system in the entire world. Einstein also had great admiration for the economic principle of capitalism in America over the socialist approach in Europe. “Capitalism is better than Socialism because government can stifle cultural, intellectual, and economic progress.”(ibid, 40) America was the true definition of just how great a society can be if it is free of government intervention because competition can truly lead to systematic progression of society as whole. A free and open society is what Einstein visualized as the most productive means of progression for man, and American economic and political structure allowed for such progress to occur. He also had great admiration for just how powerful the United States was in terms of technological advances and its overall international influence in the world.(ibid, 41) “The U.S. is the most powerful and technologically advances country on Earth, and its international influence is incalculable.”(ibid, 41) He often pondered about how American’s viewed Europe, and how they enjoyed the safety and security in which is prevalent in American society as whole.(ibid, 65) In both World Wars, America played a small role in combat, and had a hands off approach to intervention until of course it was deemed necessary to intervene as a result of the attacks on American merchant and military ships by the Germans in World War I, and of course the bombing of Pearl Harbor by the Japanese in World War II.
People in America no doubt think as follows: Let Europe go to the dogs, if it destroyed by the quarrelsomeness and wickedness of its inhabitant. The good seed of our Wilson has produced a mighty poor crop in the stony ground of Europe. We are strong and safe and in no hurry to mix ourselves up in other people’s affairs.(ibid, 65)
This perception of America by Einstein was inherently true, but he felt that this view was short-sighted. In the eyes of Einstein, America was partly to blame for the catastrophe that was emanating in Europe during World War I.
By ruthlessly pressing her claims she is hastening the economic and therewith the moral collapse of Europe; she has helped to Balkanize Europe, therefore shares the responsibility for the breakdown of political morality and the growth of that spirit of revenge which feeds on despair. This spirit will not stop short of the gates of America—I had almost said, has not stopped short. Look around, and look forward. (ibid, 65)
In the end, Einstein really cherished the charismatic nature of the United States as whole because of its political and economic structure, but believed that the U.S. had such a significant international influence that it could influence world events for the better or for the worse.
Following World War One, the League of Nations was created. Einstein believed in the concept of a one world government. Since he looked down upon the belief of nationalism or patriotism, he really admired the creation of the League of Nations. “Increasing nation’s relations will promote international security.”(ibid, 49) By bringing together the beliefs, opinions, and security issues of all nations together will only help the world as a whole, for all nations should have the interest of the whole in mind when going about making changes to laws for the good of the entire system. If all countries share a common interest, then all-out war could be suppressed by the simple fact that each nation’s security was intertwined with those of its neighbors. Einstein appealed to the creation of the Commission De Operation Intellectuelle, but in a letter to the German Secretary of the League of Nations Herr Dufour-Feronce, he wrote,
“Experience has, unhappily, taught me that the Commission, taken as a whole, stands no serious determination to make real progress with the task of improving international relations. It looks to me far more like an embodiment of the principle ut aliquid fieri videatur. The Commission seems to me even worse in this respect than the League as a whole.”(ibid, 54)
Einstein believed that the League should look past the superiority of the state, to build an arbitrary body that looks to build foundation in society that strives to relieve oppression amongst societies minorities, but because the ability to combat chauvinistic and militaristic tendencies of national government by the Commission was deemed lukewarm at best, he believed that Commission had failed to prove change in which it was created to do. “The Commission has invariably failed to give moral support to those individuals and associations who have thrown themselves without reserve into the business of working for an international order against the military system.”(ibid, 55) He believed that the League and the Commission should only appoint members who possess sound moral conviction to the problems of oppression that the world has faced especially in Europe.(ibid, 55) Einstein did not understand why the Commission would appoint individuals who views on the world blatantly contradicted the overall concepts for which it was created to do. “The Commission has never made any attempt to resist the appointment of members whom it knew to stand for tendencies the very reverse of those it is bound in duty for. The Commission had failed to give moral support to those individuals and associations who have thrown themselves without reserve into the business of working for international order and against the military system.”(ibid, 55)
As a result of Einstein overall pacifism, he believed that the world should be led it the direction of disarmament. Following the Great War in Europe, he was known to be publicly adamant on his political views of militarism, and believed that the League of Nations and the Commission should strive for a world that is free of war and a military complex. Society progresses by slow and deliberate change, but on the subject of disarmament, it should be done by swift means to help save the world and the human race from destroying itself. Einstein believed war was only fought because of the cruel and cynical self-interest of governments and those who hold the means of production and significant wealth in society. By disarming the world of its means to kill, it would ultimately lead to an increase of security for all nations of the world. As long as the thought of war remains in this world, nations will always be prepared for military intervention. As a result, nations will in turn educate the youth of society on warlike traditions and a self of pride to fight for one’s country to feel as though war is justified as inevitable to maintain such a social, economic, and political stability amongst nations on Earth. “Disarmament and security are only to be had in combination. The one guarantee of security is an undertaking by all nations to give effect to the decisions of the international authority.”(bid, 56) The 1932 Disarmament Conference would determine the fate of the world, and the coming generation. He believed that states should not intervene militarily in the overall peaceful development of nations, but only intervene when the overall development of human beings is being oppressed by their government.(ibid, 55) The problem of disarmament in the eyes of Einstein was simply this: man will not forgo his arms because of the vulnerability it causes him and the lack of security it invokes. Without a means of international security as a whole, the state(s) will inevitably refuse to disarm their nation.
It is true we have a League of Nations and a Court of Arbitration. But the League is not much more than a meeting-hall, and the Court has no means of enforcing its decisions. These institutions provide no security for any country in case of an attack on it. (ibid, 58)
Being able to come together as a group of nations against an aggressor is the only way in which true progress as a whole can be made. War can only be eliminated if the complex of nationalism shall be forgone by the ability to come together as one world, but until then man will live in a world of terror.
Unless we can agree to limit the sovereignty of the individual State by all binding ourselves to take joint action against any country which openly or secretly resists the judgment of the Court of Arbitration, we shall never get out of a state of universal anarchy and terror.(ibid, 58)
Einstein felt there were two concepts so engraved in our modern society that hinders the disarmament movement: spiritualism and materialism. (ibid, 25) Governments of the world have embedded the concept of nationalism and patriotism into the minds of its citizens leading to enormous state power. The gathering of the masses by a false sense of nationalism has allowed the self-interest of the few, to control the popular opinion of the entire populous.
They say further, and truly, that the greatest obstacle to international order is that monstrously exaggerated spirit of nationalism which also goes by the fair-sounding but misused name of patriotism. During the last century and a half this idol has acquired an uncanny and exceedingly pernicious power everywhere. (ibid, 59)
Nationalism has been deeply intertwined with the role of military service. The state, and in turn, society has deemed military service to be the highest honorable duty one can do for one’s country. A country which wishes to increase its military service is almost notably going to create a spirit of nationalism or nationalistic pride within its people. The concept of nationalism that correlates with military service provides the psychological foundation of military efficiency. Einstein felt that as long as the state provides the means to stimulate the masses with a false sense of patriotism through the media, disarmament would essentially never happen regardless of the international plea circulating within the Conference of 1932. Military might of the state along with spiritual development is in the best interest of the state simply because they must gain the admiration of the youth at the schools. Einstein, at a young age was presented with this same regiment in his early years in German schooling, often recalling having to march and recite nationalistic songs and literature which he deemed very militaristic in nature. “The introduction to compulsory service is therefore, to my mind, the prime cause of the moral collapse of the white race, which seriously threatens not merely the survival of our civilization but our very existence.”(Einstein, 60) Those who wish to condemn military service must take a stand and hold their ground against militarism and primitive might held by the state. It was a sad reality to Einstein that simply because one refused compulsory service for one’s country, one was considered a disgrace to one’s state and community for their conscientious belief in pacifism and objection to war. Dr. Einstein felt that the Disarmament Conference should find a way to end such psychological issues through education, for individuals who wish not to serve their nation in the army.
“This is my position in a nutshell: Mere agreements to limit armaments furnish no sort of security. Compulsory arbitration must be supported by executive force, guaranteed by all the participating countries, which is ready to proceed against the disturber of the peace with economic and military sanctions. Compulsory service, as the bulwark of unhealthy nationalism, must be combated; most important of all, conscientious objectors must be protected on an international basis.”(ibid, 60)
Einstein felt that the leaders of the international community desired to abolish war, but the resistance for such actions is deeply embedded in the traditions of nations from generation to generation much like a genetic disease that’s inherited. (ibid, 57) The educational system and the Press were to blame for this resistance to peaceful mannerisms toward war and disarmament simply because of the glorification of military training. It is time for the intellectual and responsible bodies of the world to come together to remind the world of the shear importance of the Disarmament Conference. It is no longer important or one’s duty to criticize barbaric actions and militarism, but to turn thought and words into action for the benefit of mankind.
The fate of the world will be such as the world deserves. Anybody who really wants to abolish war must resolutely declare himself in favour of his own country’s resigning a portion of its sovereignty in favour of international institutions: he must be ready to make his own country amenable, in case of a dispute, to the award of the international court. He must in the most uncompromising fashion support disarmament all round which is actually envisioned in the unfortunate Treaty of Versailles; unless military and aggressively patriotic education is abolished, we can hope for no progress.(ibid, 63-64)
In the end, the Disarmament Conference of 1932 was the last chance at preserving peace amongst nations of the world, and the weight of the world lay on the shoulders of European leaders, and most significantly America for she was the strongest and comparatively sound amongst nations at the Conference, and all eyes and attention were focused on her.
Einstein believed that industry and the world economic collapsed of 1929 played a significant role in the political and military future of the world. “The individual can accomplish little here, nor can one wish to see the best among us devoted to destruction through the machinery behind which stand the three great powers of stupidity, fear, and greed.”(Einstein, 68) The industrialists of the world wish to pursue their own greed and self-interest before the good of the whole. Industrialists thrived off the concept of militarism and nationalistic pride to continue with its war machine. Einstein saw this to be prevalent in Germany during the first half of the 20th century, for the industrial complex was tied deeply with media and politics to bring the people to feel the need to defend with honor and pride their beloved nation. Einstein knew the motives behind such a deeply embedded sore in the flesh of society and even went on to say, “Industrialists don’t want peace, due to money.”(ibid, 43) Einstein was deeply upset by such a world where mankind’s primitive and barbaric nature lies in the hands of those which control its fate. Those who control the means of production control the issues of the nation and subsequently the world, where is if it is a game the plutocratic society plays with the sheep-like masses as it pawns that they label replaceable. The war-like machine becomes that of perpetual motion in which is controlled by the industrialists of the world who seek their self-interest over the community interest. The armament industry is the biggest threat and greatest danger to mankind. Money and greed shall inevitably blind the moral path and compose of those who seek it in large amounts for it is never enough once one attains such monetary value. In a letter to an unknown person Einstein writes,
As regards to the munitions industry and the export of war material, the League of Nations has busied itself for years with efforts to get this horrible traffic controlled—with little success, we all know. Last year I asked a well- known American Diplomat why Japan was not forced by a commercial boycott to desist from her policy of force. He replied, “Our commercial interests are too strong.” How can one help people who rest satisfied with a statement like that? (ibid, 66)
During such a time of economic crisis as that of the late 1920’s into the early 1930’s, the purchasing power of the world lay in the hands of the few in which controlled industry. As a result of the collapse, it subsequently led to the collapse of the moral and physical embodiment of society. Together with the increase of machinery and the decrease of purchasing power of the lower and middle class, society was now brought to an all-time low. Because of over-production and inflation, the money of Germany and subordinate nations was deemed almost worthless. In addition, the payment of reparations by debtor nations whose monetary value was all, but non-existent, led to the overall collapse of German and European society. Einstein, along with many other intellectuals at the time, knew that if the purchasing power of the lower-to-middle class got below a certain point society would crumble, and would lead to a state that would for the people our to bring back the glory to the Fatherland.
In 1932, Einstein warned the world of what was to become of Germany. (ibid, 84) The Nationalist Socialist Party(Nazi) gained political power in the Prussian nation. Hitler used the degrading society of Germany to reach out to the working class to believe in his will. Being a free thinker, Einstein knew of the evil which was to follow such a tyrannical state, but at the same time the government was gaining attention and provoking the citizens of thoughts for hatred of Jews. (ibid, 84) Einstein refused to live in a state where the individual does not enjoy equality before the law and the freedom to say and teach what he likes. (ibid, 83) Germany felt that Einstein was committing “atrocity mongering” by ending his Prussian citizenship, and ending his stay at the Prussian Academy of the Sciences. (ibid, 82) Unfortunately, he had no choice in the matter. Although he was man of German decent, he was still a German-Jew, a man who was looked down upon by those who considered themselves inferior to the vermin or rats of society. Einstein took pity in the sheep-like masses that were being dug from the depths of hell only to realize in time that, that they never really left the hell from which they came from. Einstein was quoted as saying, “I would rather not belong to any society which behaves in such a manner, even if it does so under external pressure,”(ibid,88) in a letter in reply to the Bavarian Academy of Science. Einstein also received a letter from the Prussian Academy Secretary, Von Fricker, which he said that Albert made the correct choice in resigning from his position at the Academy due to his talks against the government have led to people thinking and acting in a way that goes against the government policy and ideology. The culmination of oppression, militarism, and the government having complete control of the media, it led to the sheep-like masses idolizing the Hitler whose words and actions gave them a false sense of nationalism. Albert Einstein free-thinking and constant questioning of the established belief system, was a complete contradiction from the status-quo of German society during the 1930’s, as a result he fled Germany to live in America. Although Einstein was first banished from his own family, and now was a man who was stateless, Einstein never gave up hope for mankind, and its true potential. As you will see, even though Einstein was loner, shunned out by his family and country, ridiculed, and oppressed by society his whole life, he never lost hope within himself, and because of his Jewish background, his personality reflected as such: One who never loses faith in oneself, never loses faith in mankind.
Throughout history, man has always judged society based on their clouded perception of the world. Most people take a primitive mindset and approach to human society rather than a logical and though out vision to society as a whole. Very few men and woman in the history of mankind have been able to look past human emotion and envision society not as it is, but as it should be. Society as a whole should seek a variety of things in order to truly live in a free and open society. Society is only as free as the connection between the ideas of people and the ideology of self-determinism. A free and open society can be labeled as having the interests of the whole in mind by man working together for a common goal. The common goal is social, economic, cultural and religious freedom amongst men and woman of all ages. From the time of the Great War through World War Two, such freedoms were oppressed and almost destroyed by governments and industry together. As one will see, Einstein’s vision of society was one of great compassion, understanding, and hope for mankind to come together as a whole for the improvement of life for all people on Earth.
Economic equality plays a key role in society. After the Great War, the German government and inevitably its people were debt ridden as a result for the reparations in which it had to pay France and Belgium under the stipulations put against them by the League of Nations. As a result, the purchasing power of the people was diminished by the idea of hyper-inflation where the government of Germany printed large amounts of currency to be able to pay for the war debt in which was inflicted upon them. Einstein believed the workers of society should be guaranteed a fixed minimum wage that created a linear system between the purchasing power of the workers and the price of the products in which were sold. A fixed minimum wage that correlated with the rising inflation would increase the purchasing power of the average citizen. Inflation causes a decrease in the value of the money over a period of time which would inevitably cost members of society more money to purchase goods and service. By increasing the minimum wage relative to prices, society as a whole would be on an even playing field. The problem with labor, money, and society is the technological innovation society as whole has brought to the table. As a result of societal progression, the need for human labor decreases as the technological innovation invented by man increases. Because of the decrease in the workforce as a direct correlation of exponential technological growth as a function of time toward the future, this creates it many issues. First of all, the decreased need for labor because of new technology causes a social outcry amongst skilled and unskilled laborers. One could insinuate that Einstein believed and understood the idea of the Wage-Fund theory although he does not directly discuss it in his writings. The Wage-Fund theory is an economic and social theory that states that if the demand of a job or profession is high, but the need for the positions is low, than the wages of a said job or professor will, in turn, be significantly lower than a job or profession where the need for positions is high, but the quantity of individuals in the field is low. “Jobs are hard to come by because of progress of production. Only a fraction of the available labor in the world is needed for the production of the total amount of consumption goods necessary for life.” Between the period of World War I and World War II, the technological progress of science and business, left much of European, more specific German, workers without jobs. The lack of jobs combined with the crushing blow the League of Nations put on Germany following the Great War in terms of reparations really caused a societal outcry because not only was technology causing people to lose their jobs, their money was not even worth enough to buy their families food. Economic inequality following the Great Depression was at an all-time high and was unlike any time before it in modern history. Einstein believed society needed to increase involvement of younger people in the productive process, and exclude elderly from certain sorts of work. Instead they should receive a certain income, for they have contributed enough to be considered productive to society.(Ibid, 77) In the end, the exponential growth of technology and the inflation of monetary currency during the first third of the 20th century caused significant social issues and public outcry across the globe, but centrally located in Germany. Einstein felt that making wages proportional to inflation, and increasing the younger generation’s active role in production and decreasing the productive role of the elderly were tangible solutions for such consequences.(Ibid, 73) By increasing and maintaining a fixed minimum wage, it would allow greater purchasing power for the worker that was proportional to the pace at which production was being put forth by industry. Einstein’s philosophy was based on economic equality as one can see. After the Great Depression, the gap between the worker class and the entrepreneur was growing quite extensively because although Germany’s government was printing large sums of capital for the war debt, business owners and industrialists still maintained a great deal of purchasing power which they took advantage of as a result. By identifying this issue, Einstein felt that by increasing minimum wage at a fixed rate and fixed working hours, it would even the playing field between workers and industrialists in terms of time, energy, and purchasing power. (ibid, 72) The thought of fixed working hours, in theory, would decrease the rate of unemployment in which it could one day be abolished. The Liberalist view on economics in society puts emphasis on an increased labor force. To decrease unemployment and create less socio-economic stress, liberals seek to put employ more workers in the economy. Although the strategy looks good in the perception of the general public, the increased labor force drives the overall wages down to where a large portion of society is an un-naturally low socio-economic level. The Liberal views, in the eyes of Einstein, provide a means to alleviate unemployment, yet it creates a worker class with no purchasing power as result of unbelievably low wages. (ibid, 77) Looking deeper at the use of purchasing power rather than monetary worth, one can make draw a conclusion as to why Einstein used this term. As one can see that the purchasing power and the overall monopolistic tendencies of their tyrants of business, the prices should be controlled by the governing body of the state, so that prices could stay reasonable for both business and workers alike in society because if one lets business do as business does, it will leave industry with artificially driven prices and manipulated markets. A linear system, in theory should be created to even out the production and consumption of goods to implement and maintain a proper balance, but at the same time not hindering the capitalist nature of business which thrives off economic growth. During times of hyper-inflation, the value of money is diminished to below half of its worth, so the value is almost non-existent, yet the acquisition and hoarding of large sums of capital gives an individual the ability to purchase goods and services indicating the individual has increased purchasing power over another.
Although Europe was paralyzed by economic hardship during the Crash of 29’, problems of socio-economic equality was not just concentrated in Europe. The crisis struck the whole world, and through the eyes of Einstein, he broke it down into five basic factors(ibid, 71): Overproduction of wheat and the overproduction of vehicles. American created an unstable credit system that allowed Americans to access new technological items which led to the rise of consumerism. Consumerism led to overproduction of goods that industrialists thought would continue to be purchased, but this was a false perception. Once demand for new technologies such as the Model T and other new gadgets such as the radio and the washer fell below that of the supply, the entire economy collapse leading to a society that went into socio-economic hardship. The overproduction of crops such as wheat left the U.S. agricultural industry nearly bankrupt when prices of wheat crept so low that farmers could not break even on their crops. Secondly, as discussed earlier, the cost of reparations due to the war guilt placed upon Germany created a scale of hyper-inflation in Germany not seen for quite some time. This hyper-inflation on the debtor nation really had a domino effect on that of American, the creditor nation because the linkage between the two leaves creditor vulnerable economically. This had a serious implication amongst Germany society and really was the gateway for further conflict amongst European society. The erection of tariff walls in Europe caused significant socio-economic hardship during the Depression as a result of increased burden and thoughts of armament and political unrest. Because of this, society as a whole had to suffer as a result of political and military unrest which caused workers and families to lose jobs and entire life savings because of high taxes put on good and services imported and exported among European Nations. In addition, fall of the two powers Russia and China had serious implications. Although the fall of these two powers did not directly affect the socio-economic status of America, the fall of these two powers had a dramatic effect on world trade. Finally, the rise of the economic lower class since the end of the Great War led to the idea of scarcity of goods because of the increase in this class of people. Having enough food to feed the people of the growing lower class of society can put a deep burden on society because goods can only be produced at certain rates, and the replenishing process takes time as well.
In order for human civilization to prosper, we must remember culture. (ibid, 74) Society is quick to judge man based on their cultural background and the ideals and morals of which they were raised upon. Between the time period of World War I to World War II, European society was crumbling to because poor decisions made by the world super powers. During a time where morals and ethics were needed most to hold society together from destroying each other, principles of moral and ethical code were put on the backburner because of overwhelming political tension and economic hardship which caused society to revert back to its primitive nature instead of society coming together as a whole to bring social, political, and economic justice. By having mankind come together as one world made up of different countries, society would transform itself into something better than previously imagined. Einstein believed in such a society. He believed in a society that was content on implementing social justice for everyone to enjoy, not just those in power. Social equality is an inalienable right for all men and women, and for all socio-economic classes to enjoy not just those who have political authority over the masses. Like previously stated, society should not be a servant for the government, the government should provide for the wants and needs of the people they were elected to serve. Members of society should acknowledge that these inalienable rights as human beings. Members or citizens of society should not pass judgment on other individuals based on belief systems for life is relative to world through each of eyes and ears. No man or woman thinks and believes the same, and Einstein knew that from my point of view. Einstein called for a society that showed willingness to understand and except that all human beings re inherently different. (ibid, 70) The most amazing thing about the human race is the fact that we are all the same, yet individually we are all so different. God blessed each person with a gift or a skill that on can bring to the table and offer the world one simply needs to find it within them and perfect. People go there whole lives without knowing their purpose or reason for being on this grand Earth, but once one finds meaning to one’s life, one should take advantage of the random gifts that the Creator offered thee. “The cult of individual personalities is always in my view unjustifiable. To be sure, nature distributes her gifts variously among her children.”(ibid, 37)
During Einstein’s wonder years as I call them, which is the time period between his publication of special relativity of 1905 and his departure from Germany, Einstein was a prominent spokesperson for minorities as a whole. Society always labels minorities as outcasts or different simply because they deviate from the societal norms of the masses which are controlled again by what I call the upper-class minorities. Upon reading the book, The World As I See It, it truly made me think of my own life. Throughout my life, I was an advocate for social justice and fair treatment of all those that are seen as different. By labeling humans, we as a society are oppressing those in which we label, which in turn, causes them to lose self-esteem and self-worth which comes with how we view ourselves. Those same minorities, such as those labeled as “geeks” and “nerds,” are the same individuals who go on to become truly successful people in terms of intellect, monetary worth, and political power, so the perpetual wheel of hate and resentful goes full circle when those individuals who were oppressed and labeled as minorities as a child, are the individuals as adults who oppress and label the masses, and inevitably punish them for their immature ways as a child, adolescent, and teen. Einstein was an advocate against minorities who are seen by the majority as inferior to them which leads to oppression, and eventually the same oppression and hate of the masses. (ibid, 78) The majority of human beings that are lazy and in some cases lack the intellect to think for themselves in terms of judging people are easily manipulated to believe in the labels in which cruel and powerful people indoctrinate a society with. One could see this tactic in the political ideology of Adolf Hitler and the Nazi’s. Adolf Hitler, who was known as a young adult to failed art school and was kicked out of the Germany army for lack of physical ability was judged and labeled by society as a misfit minority took that anger and oppression and turned it into political motivation. His anger and resentment as a child turned into hatred for the those in society who were successful and controlled the means of business and banking which were of Jewish decent. Hitler was able to indoctrinate the masses of Germany society, who were vulnerable in the 1930’s because of the Great Depression, to believe in his cause to bring back German pride and economic means to the working class or middle class. By indoctrinating those individuals who were vulnerable and could not think for themselves, he was able to manipulate the minds of society to believe in his ideology to persecute and execute those were seen as minorities and inferior to the “Pure German Race”. Dr. Einstein, who was an independent thinker and full of compassion for all walks of life, was a truly an advocate to rid the world of social injustice in terms of ending the societal labels were put on individuals, but he lived in a time in history where governments and industry indoctrinated the people of society to believe in their cruel, selfish ideology which eventually cost him his citizenship but never his faith in the social justice of all mankind.
The key to improving social, economic, and political justice and implementing those ideas of justice into society is through the free exchange of thoughts and ideas from the perspective of all members of society no matter their socio-economic stance within it. By allowing the free exchange of thoughts, opinions, and ideas, society as a whole can slowly evolve into one of understanding and justice.
Whether we find the way of peace or continue along the old road of brute force so unworthy of our civilization, depends on ourselves. On the one side, the freedom of the individual, and the security of society beckon us, on the other side slavery for the individual and the annihilation of our civilization threatens us. Our fate will be according to our deserts. (ibid, 56)
The future of society and the human race as whole depends on the sharing of thoughts and ideas because all social, economic, and political progress starts with one man or woman going against the status-quo. Life, society, and innovation evolves overtime, and during the time of Einstein, one can see that the evolution of innovation was growing exponentially while the evolution of social justice was being crushed by the tightening grips of tyrants wishing to oppress the thoughts, ideas, and opinions of those individuals that they were voted in to serve and protect.
Common man is too afraid to speak out against the government and big business. These men are cowards. Man will embrace you until you attack his self-interests. The motto of a country mean is this, ‘Leave it alone and do not speak of it.’ (ibid, 69)
The society in which Einstein lived in, and even that of my parent’s generation believed that if you did not talk about it, the problems, issues, and concerns did not exist. Without the willingness of the masses of all walks of life to come together as one and speak up and spend ideas and thoughts for preservation and promotion of social justice, progression and deviations from the status-quo will never happen. As a whole, society wishes for the day where all man is on equal footing in front of the law, and the only way for that to truly become a living reality for all mankind is through the use of communication amongst all mankind, but no change comes easy. Society as a whole through peaceful intervention and exchange can promote change through their words in the form of written language, or the sounds waves of your voice, but no change comes easy because those who control the means of change are not eager to allow. Through perseverance and belief in one’s self, anything is possible. Einstein was ridiculed his whole life by his family, his peers, his government, and society as a whole, but he remained faithful to himself because he believed in himself while no one else did. This goes to show one that by believing in oneself is like believing in all of humanity. The exchange of ideas and thoughts amongst man can only go as far as the belief and implementation of those thoughts and ideas in one’s own life prior to the change of world views of society as a whole. The future starts within and expands steadily as ideas grow exponentially amongst all. Einstein’s views on society were well ahead of his time for his views on society and science alike are issues that even until this day are still being fought for. Those in power do not wish for equality of all man because it will mean their power will be decreased as a result of social change. Social progression as a whole begins with one man or woman with a vision. That vision can become a living reality when men and women alike put their differences aside, and work together for a just cause of social, economic, and political equality beside the law.
In the past 150-200 years, scientific progress has taken society on a journey that has turned reality into that of science fiction. Without the progression of science, the human race would still be stuck in what seems like the stone-age. The advancements in mathematics, theoretical physics, and applied physics and engineering saw exponential growth and understanding at the end of the 19th and beginning of the 20th century. Albert Einstein was at the forefront of the beginning of that scientific revolution of the early 20th century. Not only did he bring to life a broader perspective and understanding of the universe on scales as large galaxies and super-clusters, but also on scales the size of the quantum, but his philosophy of science and the scientific community is one that shows his humble nature as a human being and his love for science as an innovator for the progression of society economically, socially, and politically. The advancements of science hands-down drove the world economy even back in early 20th century. The evolution of the economy and accumulation of new economic wealth goes hand-in-hand with the steady progression, understanding, and application of scientific research, and many people not just Einstein knew this for it does not take a genius to realize this. “Scientific inquiry drives economic growth.”(ibid, 30) From the invention of the steam engine and the printing press, to the invention of the radio and television, scientific curiosity and application drives our economy forward through time. The world market is heavily influenced on this steady progression of new ideas and invention as one can see when one looks on the New York Stock Exchange. The only portion of the New York Stock Exchange that one must pay to see is the link that offers one access to the global technology market. Einstein’s vision of the future was much more intuitive than most, and in my opinion, it was a gift and a curse simultaneously. Scientific advancements also created a gateway for the transfer of information and ideas. Scientific inquiry works best when there is a free exchange of information amongst scientists. The free exchange of ideas was a liberator for many because it allowed for many people to come together to solve issues. For example, without Einstein’s letter to the President of the United States during World War II, Nazi Germany may have won the war, and created the first atomic bomb. The theoretical work of Albert Einstein’s famous equation E=MC^2 created a gateway of ideas and interpretations that led to the culmination and production of a new found weapon that could and did end World War II.
As one can see, scientific innovation can also create political, economic, and social turmoil amongst members of society. Science inevitably drives the economy forward through time, but at the same time its progress can be stifled for a variety of reasons. Money and politics can create a means of stifling such progress. In a time of economic or world crisis, funding can and will be cut from science by politicians who have a political agenda. The free exchange of ideas can be a cause of concern for politicians who do not take a positive outlook on this free exchange of ideas. Scientists are at the will and mercy of government money to fund their scientific inquiry and research towards gaining an understanding of physics and other fields of scientific research. “Because of his left-wing political beliefs, the U.S. Army denied Einstein the security clearances he needed to be a part of the Manhattan Project, and so his role in the development of this deadly technology was an indirect one.” .As one can see, scientists are looked down upon by individuals whose version of reality is clouded by economic and political blindness. Scientific progress in the end, can only be implemented in society as fast as those who control business and politics, or better terms those who control the flow and exchange of money and power. Einstein did not believe that scientific achievement should be driven by fame and fortune, but by pure curiosity to understand the mind of god.
I cannot conceive of a personal God who would directly influence the actions of individuals, or would directly sit in judgment on creatures of his own creation. I cannot do this in spite of the fact that mechanistic causality has, to a certain extent, been placed in doubt by modern science. [He was speaking of Quantum Mechanics and the breaking down of determinism.] My religiosity consists in a humble admiration of the infinitely superior spirit that reveals itself in the little that we, with our weak and transitory understanding, can comprehend of reality. Morality is of the highest importance -- but for us, not for God.
Einstein’s drive for a simple and modest life was depicted through his legacy as a person and as a scientist. His curiosity and drive for understanding of the physical world was driven by his goal of trying to understand the mind of god, and his laws for which governed the universe for which we live in. Einstein had this consoling thought, “In an age of materialism, it takes heroes of men whose ambitions lie wholly in the intellectual and moral sphere.” While many scientists were driven by the thought of being famous, Einstein stood by quietly going about his business while critics all over the world lay judgment on his work, but he did not seem to care. By never losing faith in oneself, one will in the end prevail, yet never fall victim to those who will try to bring you down to their level.
Einstein painted a picture of his thoughts within his mind by creating grand equations that changed the way we viewed the world forever, but very few realize what his scientific achievements did for society. Einstein’s scientific research brought many new concepts and inventions to our modern world. The theory of relativity brought with it satellites and GPS through light signals because with his equations, one can now calculate distance between two point on Earth through light signals between your current positions and your destination. His particle theory of light, or as he called it the “light quanta”, changed the course of modern medicine forever. We can thank Dr. Einstein for our advances in radiation treatment for cancer patients, as well as X-rays, MRI’s, CAT scans, and PET scans because these machines function by way of electromagnetic signals that penetrate the skin to show any medical issues such as muscle tears, broken bones, tumors, and other soft tissue problems. We, as a society can thank Albert Einstein for lasers that we see concerts, lectures where teachers or professors use laser pointer to direct the student’s attention at certain information on a given medium, as well as laser guided systems and ray guns now being used by the U.S. Military to keep us safe and protected from harm’s way. In the end, Albert Einstein has shaped our modern lifestyle more than anyone could have ever imagined.
Through my eyes and personal perception, Albert Einstein is the single greatest human being in the modern era of human history. The influence he’s had on our society is so profound that words alone cannot do him justice. His views on politics, society, and the scientific community are revolutionary for so many reasons. His thoughts on government being a servant to the people are words that are simple, but carry a deeper meaning in a society where governments and business are in a power struggle over the masses of society. He envisioned a society where war and oppression could be stopped because he was a natural born pacifist and an abstract thinker who could see through the lies and cruel self-interest of governments and industrialists who sought to profit from war and oppression. Dr. Einstein hoped one day mankind could look past their differences, and embraces the beauty of the human race and nature, and work together to promote peace and equality for all walks of life to enjoy. He believed that national interest should be second to that of the world’s interest as a whole, and wished for the implementation of a world government whose goal was to promote and maintain peace, and rally together against any global aggressor. His scientific drive for understanding of the physical world was not driven by fame or fortune, but driven by curiosity to understand the mind of God. Albert Einstein in 2000, was named Time Magazine’s, Man of the Century, and it’s unfortunate that he could not be alive to see what he’s done for the human race, but it’s not what you’ve done while you’re alive, it’s the imprint one’s legacy leaves in the minds of all those who have come after him which will live on for the rest of eternity.
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Einstein, Albert. The World As I See It. Translated By Alan Harris. Carol Publishing Group Edition. 1998. Secaucus, New Jersey. Copyright 1956
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Scarlett – History of Economic Theory and Thought. “ J.S. Mill’s Wage Fun Theory.” 1 May 2013. http://www.economictheories.org/2008/11/j-s-mills-wages-fund-theory.html. Copyright 2009.
 Einstein, Albert. The World As I See It. Translated By Alan Harris. Carol Publishing Group Edition. 1998. Secaucus, New Jersey. Copyright 1956
 Einstein, Albert. The World As I See It. Translated By Alan Harris. Carol Publishing Group Edition. 1998. Secaucus, New Jersey. Copyright 1956
 Scarlett – History of Economic Theory and Thought. “ J.S. Mill’s Wage Fun Theory.” 1 May 2013. http://www.economictheories.org/2008/11/j-s-mills-wages-fund-theory.html. Copyright 2009.
 Einstein, Albert. The World As I See It. Translated By Alan Harris. Carol Publishing Group Edition. 1998. Secaucus, New Jersey. Copyright 1956
 Einstein, Albert. The World As I See It. Translated By Alan Harris. Carol Publishing Group Edition. 1998. Secaucus, New Jersey. Copyright 1956
 NYSE Euronext. “Consolidated Tape.” 11 February 2012. https://nysetechnologies.nyx.com/en/acquire-global-market-data/consolidated-tape.
 Einstein, Albert. “Letter to FDR.” 16 May 2012. http://www.fdrlibrary.marist.edu/archives/pdfs/docsworldwar.pdf. 2 August 1939.
 History Channel Online. Albert Einstein: Fact or Fiction? 10 May 2013. http://www.history.com/topics/einsteins-life-facts-and-fiction. Copyright 1996-2013
 Einstein, Albert. The World As I See It. Translated By Alan Harris. Carol Publishing Group Edition. 1998. Secaucus, New Jersey. Copyright 1956.